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IP CODE - Republic Act No 8293

An act prescribing the intellectual property code and establishing the intellectual property office, providing for its powers and functions, and for other purposes



Outline of the
Intellectual Property Code
(Republic Act No 8293)

1 Protected Works
2 Excluded Works
3 Territorial Coverage
of Copyrights
4 Scope of Copyright Protection
5 Ownership of Copyright
6 Transfer of Assignment
of Copyright
7 Limitations on Copyright
8 Length of
Copyright Protection
9 Copyright Enforcement
10 Penalties for Infringement
11 International Registration
of Works
12 Border Control

Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter V, the following acts shall not constitute infringement of copyright (SECTION 184.1):

  • The recitation or performance of a work, once it has been lawfully made accessible to the public, if (1)done privately and free of charge or (2)if made strictly for a charitable or religious institution or society; (Sec. 10(1), P.D. No. 49)
  • The making of quotations from a published work if they are compatible with fair use and only to the extent justified for the purpose, including quotations from newspaper articles and periodicals in the form of press summaries: Provided, That the source and the name of the author, if appearing on the work, are mentioned; (Sec. 11, third par., P.D. No. 49)
  • The reproduction or communication to the public by mass media of (1)articles on current political, social, economic, scientific or religious topic, (2)lectures, addresses and other works of the same nature, which are delivered in public if such use is for information purposes and has not been expressly reserved: Provided, That the source is clearly indicated; (Sec. 11, P.D. No. 49)
  • The reproduction and communication to the public of literary, scientific or artistic works as part of reports of current events by means of photography, cinematography or broadcasting to the extent necessary for the purpose; (Sec. 12, P.D. No. 49)
  • The inclusion of a work in a publication, broadcast, or other communication to the public, sound recording or film, if such inclusion is made by way of illustration for teaching purposes and is compatible with fair use: Provided, That the source and of the name of the author, if appearing in the work, are mentioned;
  • The recording made in schools, universities, or educational institutions of a work included in a broadcast for the use of such schools, universities or educational institutions: Provided, That such recording must be deleted within a reasonable period after they were first broadcast: Provided, further, That such recording may not be made from audiovisual works which are part of the general cinema repertoire of feature films except for brief excerpts of the work;
  • The making of ephemeral recordings by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for use in its own broadcast;
  • The use made of a work by or under the direction or control of the Government, by the National Library or by educational, scientific or professional institutions where such use is in the public interest and is compatible with fair use;
  • The public performance or the communication to the public of a work, in a place where no admission fee is charged in respect of such public performance or communication, by a club or institution for charitable or educational purpose only, whose aim is not profit making, subject to such other limitations as may be provided in the Regulations; (n)
  • Public display of the original or a copy of the work not made by means of a film, slide, television image or otherwise on screen or by means of any other device or process: Provided, That either the work has been published, or, that the original or the copy displayed has been sold, given away or otherwise transferred to another person by the author or his successor in title; and
  • Any use made of a work for the purpose of any judicial proceedings or for the giving of professional advice by a legal practitioner.

CAVEAT. The provisions of this section shall be interpreted in such a way as to allow the work to be used in a manner which does not conflict with the normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the right holder's legitimate interests. (SECTION 184.2)

FAIR USE OF A COPYRIGHTED WORK. The fair use of a copyrighted work for (1)criticism, comment, (2)news reporting, (3)teaching including multiple copies for classroom use, (4)scholarship, research, and similar purposes is not an infringement of copyright. Decompilation, which is understood here to be the reproduction of the code and translation of the forms of the computer program to achieve the inter-operability of an independently created computer program with other programs may also constitute fair use. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is fair use, the factors to be considered shall include (SECTION 185.1) :

  • The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for non-profit educational purposes;
  • The nature of the copyrighted work;
  • The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  • The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

185.2. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not by itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.

PRIVATE REPRODUCTION OF PUBLISHED WORK. Notwithstanding the provision of Section 177, and subject to the provisions of Subsection 187.2, the private reproduction of a published work in a single copy, where the reproduction is made by a natural person exclusively for research and private study, shall be permitted, without the authorization of the owner of copyright in the work. (SECTION 187.1)

CAVEAT. The permission granted under Subsection 187.1 shall not extend to the reproduction of:

  • A work of architecture in the form of building or other construction;
  • An entire book, or a substantial part thereof, or of a musical work in graphic form by reprographic means;
  • A compilation of data and other materials;
  • A computer program except as provided in Section 189; and
  • Any work in cases where reproduction would unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the work or would otherwise unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author. (n)

REPROGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION BY LIBRARIES. Notwithstanding the provisions of Subsection 177.6, any library or archive whose activities are not for profit may, without the authorization of the author of copyright owner, make a single copy of the work by reprographic reproduction (SECTION 188.1):

  • Where the work by reason of its fragile character or rarity cannot be lent to user in its original form;
  • Where the works are isolated articles contained in composite works or brief portions of other published works and the reproduction is necessary to supply them, when this is considered expedient, to persons requesting their loan for purposes of research or study instead of lending the volumes or booklets which contain them; and
  • Where the making of such a copy is in order to preserve and, if necessary in the event that it is lost, destroyed or rendered unusable, replace a copy, or to replace, in the permanent collection of another similar library or archive, a copy which has been lost, destroyed or rendered unusable and copies are not available with the publisher.

CAVEAT. Notwithstanding the above provisions, it shall not be permissible to produce a volume of a work published in several volumes or to produce missing tomes or pages of magazines or similar works, unless the volume, tome or part is out of stock: Provided, That every library which, by law, is entitled to receive copies of a printed work, shall be entitled, when special reasons so require, to reproduce a copy of a published work which is considered necessary for the collection of the library but which is out of stock. (Sec. 13, P.D. 49a) (SECTION188.2)

REPRODUCTION OF COMPUTER PROGRAM. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 177, the reproduction in one (1) back-up copy or adaptation of a computer program shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author of, or other owner of copyright in, a computer program, by the lawful owner of that computer program: Provided, That the copy or adaptation is necessary for (SECTION 189.1):

  • The use of the computer program in conjunction with a computer for the purpose, and to the extent, for which the computer program has been obtained; and
    Archival purposes, and, for the replacement of the lawfully owned copy of the computer program in the event that the lawfully obtained copy of the computer program is lost, destroyed or rendered unusable.

189.2. No copy or adaptation mentioned in this Section shall be used for any purpose other than the ones determined in this Section, and any such copy or adaptation shall be destroyed in the event that continued possession of the copy of the computer program ceases to be lawful.

189.3. This provision shall be without prejudice to the application of Section 185 (FAIR USE PROVISIONS) whenever appropriate. (n)

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